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IOQC-Indian Olympiad Qualifier in Chemistry

Indian Olympiad Qualifier in Chemistry

Indian Olympiad Qualifier in Chemistry (IOQC)

Many aspects of the IOQ (Indian Olympiad Qualifier) 2020-21 procedure have changed as a result of the continuing epidemic. Instead of three phases, the national Olympiad programme in science topics will now follow a two-stage selection method that will culminate in the international Olympiads in 2021.

• The first stage will be the Indian Olympiad Qualifier (IOQ) in 2020-2021.

• The second step will be the Orientation and Selection Camp (OCSC).

Orientation-cum-Selection Camps Selections (OCSCs)

Unless announced otherwise before the IOQ examinations, a total of 35 students will be selected for OCSC in Biology, Chemistry, and Physics, and 50 students will be picked for OCSC in Astronomy.

If there is a tie at the final position in the respective IOQ Part II merit list, all students with the same marks at the last position shall be eligible for the OCSC.

About IOQC

Indian Olympiad Qualifier in Chemistry(IOQC): 23 January 2022 (Sunday), 14:30–18:00hrs

Analysis of exam

A general mastery of science themes learned until Class 10 and chemistry topics studied until Class 12 is anticipated in addition to the following.

Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

General Introduction: Importance and scope of chemistry.

Nature of matter, laws of chemical combination, Dalton's atomic theory: concept of elements,

atoms and molecules.

Atomic and molecular masses, mole concept and molar mass, percentage composition,

empirical and molecular formula, chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on

stoichiometry.

Structure of Atom

Bohr's model and its limitations, concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and

light, de Broglie's relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbitals, quantum

numbers, shapes of s, p and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals - Aufbau principle,

Pauli's exclusion principle and Hund's rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of

half-filled and completely filled orbitals.

Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties

Modern periodic law and the present form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of

elements -atomic radii, ionic radii, inert gas radii, Ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy,

electronegativity, valency. Nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100

Chemical Bonding and Molecular structure

Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond, bond parameters, Lewis structure, polar

character of covalent bond, covalent character of ionic bond, valence bond theory, resonance,

geometry of covalent molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization, involving s, p and

d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear

diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only), hydrogen bond.

States of Matter: Gases and Liquids

Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling

points, role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle's law, Charles law,

Gay Lussac's law, Avogadro's law, ideal behaviour, empirical derivation of gas equation,

Avogadro's number, ideal gas equation.

Deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature, kinetic energy and

molecular speeds (elementary idea)

Liquid State: vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no

mathematical derivations)

States of Matter: Solid State

Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and

metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea). Unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in

solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point

defects.

Chemical Thermodynamics

Concepts of System and types of systems, surroundings, work, heat, energy, extensive and

intensive properties, state functions. First law of thermodynamics -internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of ΔU and ΔH,

Hess's law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of bond dissociation, combustion, formation,

atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution. Second law of

Thermodynamics (brief introduction).Introduction of entropy as a state function, Gibb's

energy change for spontaneous and non- spontaneous processes, criteria for equilibrium.

Third law of thermodynamics (brief introduction).

Equilibrium

Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass

action, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium- Le Chatelier's principle, ionic

equilibrium- ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization,

ionization of poly basic acids, acid strength, concept of pH, Henderson Equation, hydrolysis

of salts (elementary idea), buffer solution, solubility product, common ion effect (with

illustrative examples).

Solutions

Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of

gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties - relative lowering of vapour pressure,

Raoult's law, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure,

determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass,

Van't Hoff factor.

Electrochemistry

Redox reactions: Concept of oxidation and reduction, oxidation number, balancing redox

reactions, in terms of loss and gain of electrons and change in oxidation number, applications

of redox reactions.

conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity, variations of

conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch's Law, electrolysis and law of electrolysis

(elementary idea), dry cell-electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells, lead accumulator, EMF of a

cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells,

Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, fuel cells, corrosion.

Chemical Kinetics

Rate of a reaction (Average and instantaneous), factors affecting rate of reaction:

concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction, rate law and

specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half-life (only for zero and first order

reactions), concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment).

Activation energy, Arrhenius equation.

Surface Chemistry

Adsorption - physisorption and chemisorption, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids,

catalysis, homogenous and heterogenous activity and selectivity; enzyme catalysis colloidal

state distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspension; lyophilic, lyophobic

multi-molecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect,

Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation, emulsion - types of emulsions.

s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals)

Position of hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses

of hydrogen, hydrides-ionic covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of

water, heavy water, hydrogen peroxide - preparation, reactions and structure and use;

hydrogen as a fuel.

Group 1 and Group 2 Elements General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence,

anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the

variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical

reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens, uses.

Preparation and properties of some important compounds: Sodium Carbonate, Sodium

Chloride, Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Hydrogencarbonate, Biological importance of

Sodium and Potassium.

Calcium Oxide and Calcium Carbonate and their industrial uses, biological importance of

Magnesium and Calcium.

p -Block Elements

General Introduction to p -Block Elements

Group 13 Elements:

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of

properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first

element of the group,

Boron - physical and chemical properties, some important compounds, Borax, Boric acid,

Boron Hydrides,

Aluminium: Reactions with acids and alkalies, uses.

Group 14 Elements:

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of

properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first

elements. Carbon-catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties; uses of some

important compounds: oxides.

Important compounds of Silicon and a few uses: Silicon Tetrachloride, Silicones, Silicates

and Zeolites, their uses.

Group -15 Elements:

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation

states, trends in physical and chemical properties; Nitrogen preparation properties and uses;

compounds of Nitrogen: preparation and properties of Ammonia and Nitric Acid.

Group 16 Elements:

General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states,

occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, dioxygen: Preparation, Properties and

uses, classification of Oxides, Ozone, Sulphur -allotropic forms; compounds of Sulphur:

Preparation Properties and uses of Sulphur-dioxide, Sulphuric Acid: industrial process of

manufacture, properties and uses; Oxoacids of Sulphur (Structures only).

Group 17 Elements:

General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states,

occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens, Preparation,

properties and uses of Chlorine and Hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, Oxoacids of

halogens (structures only).

Group 18 Elements:

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in

physical and chemical properties, uses.

‘d’ and ‘f’ Block Elements

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition

metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals - metallic character,

ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic

properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation, preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7

and KMnO4.

Lanthanide -

Electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid

contraction and its consequences.

Actinoids -

Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanide.

General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements

Principles and methods of extraction - concentration, oxidation, reduction

-electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium,

copper, zinc and iron

Coordination Compounds

Coordination compounds - Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic

properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds.

Bonding, Werner's theory, VBT, and CFT; structure and stereoisomerism, importance of

coordination compounds (in qualitative inclusion, extraction of metals and biological system).

Organic Chemistry - Some Basic Principles and Techniques

General introduction, methods of purification, qualitative and quantitative analysis,

classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds.

Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance

and hyperconjugation. Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radicals,

carbocations, carbanions, electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions.

Hydrocarbons

Classification of Hydrocarbons

Aliphatic Hydrocarbons:

Alkanes - Nomenclature, isomerism, conformation (ethane only), physical properties,

chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and

pyrolysis.

Alkenes - Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism, physical

properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water,

hydrogen halides (Markownikov's addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation,

mechanism of electrophilic addition.

Alkynes - Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties, methods of

preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of - hydrogen,

halogens, hydrogen halides and water.

Aromatic Hydrocarbons:

Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature, benzene: resonance,

aromaticity, chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution. Nitration,

sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft's alkylation and acylation, directive influence of

functional group in monosubstituted benzene. Carcinogenicity and toxicity.

Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

Haloalkanes:

Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties,

mechanism of substitution reactions, optical rotation.

Haloarenes:

Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (Directive influence of halogen in

monosubstituted compounds only).

Uses and environmental effects of - dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane,

iodoform, freons, DDT.

Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers

Alcohols:

Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of

primary alcohols only), identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, mechanism

of dehydration, uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol.

Phenols:

Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic

nature of phenol, electrophilic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.

Ethers:

Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.

Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids

Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation,

physical and chemical properties, mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha

hydrogen in aldehydes, uses.

Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and

chemical properties; uses.

Organic compounds containing Nitrogen

Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and

chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.

Cyanides and Isocyanides - preparation and reactions.

Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic

chemistry.

Biomolecules

Carbohydrates - Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharides (glucose and fructose),

D-L configuration oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch,

cellulose, glycogen); Importance of carbohydrates.

Proteins -Elementary idea of - amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, structure of

proteins - primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea

only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes. Hormones - Elementary idea excluding structure.

Vitamins - Classification and functions.

Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA.

Polymers

Copolymerization, some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon,

polyesters, bakelite, rubber. Biodegradable and non- biodegradable polymers.

Environmental Chemistry

Environmental pollution - air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere,

smog, major atmospheric pollutants, acid rain, ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of

ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global warming- pollution due to industrial wastes, green

chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategies for control of environmental

pollution.

Chemistry in Everyday life

Chemicals in medicines - analgesics, tranquilizers antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials,

antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.

Chemicals in food - preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of

antioxidants.Cleansing agents- soaps and detergents, cleansing action.

Preparation Tips For IOQC:

NSEC

The questions are very similar to jee mains chemistry. The most important thing, especially for class 11 aspirants, would be to cover as much syllabus as possible. The questions aren't difficult. Speed and accuracy is very important. For that I suggest you solve previous years papers. The books I recommend are:

● Physical chemistry

● NCERT

● Physical chemistry by Wiley Publications

● Organic chemistry

● NCERT

● Solomon and Fryhle/Paula Bruice

● Inorganic Chemistry

● NCERT

● J D Lee

OCSC

First, go over the preliminary issues that the host country releases ahead of OCSC. Also, don't be intimidated if you try to solve IChO papers. Make sure you're familiar with some fundamental laboratory abilities, such as titration, TLC (Thin Layer Chromatography), qualitative Organic and Inorganic analysis, and so on. Examining prior year's exam papers is essential. Most synthesis questions include indications at each stage, so don't be afraid to make a plausible guess if you don't know the reaction. Also, for physical chemistry numericals, make sure to write down each step properly. You should be able to clearly articulate your thought process.

I would recommend the following books for more reading:

● Organic chemistry by Clayden.

● Physical chemistry by Peter Atkins (very few topics are important, so read only relevant stuff)

● Inorganic chemistry by Shriver Atkins (selectively read Coordination compounds, for other topics JD Lee is enough)

Also, pay close attention in class and in lab sessions. Most importantly, just do your best in the theory and practical tests and don't be intimidated by the fact that everyone else appears to be so smart. To make it to the IOs, you must have tenacity.

Best of luck to all of the candidates. Above all, have fun with the Olympiad because sometimes the journey is more important than the destination. For other such details check our website.