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INBO Exam - Indian National Biology Olympiad, Eligibility Criteria, Exam Pattern & Syllabus

inbo exam

Indian National Biology Olympiad (INBO)

The goal of the international Olympiad movement is to bring together the world's most talented secondary and upper secondary students in a friendly competition at the highest level. The Olympiads do not directly lead to career benefits; rather, they serve as a catalyst for people to pursue careers in science or mathematics and embark on a lifelong adventure into the regions of interesting intellectual difficulties. The Olympiads are more than just competitions; they are gathering grounds for the world's greatest young minds, and many connections formed during the Olympiads become the seeds of subsequent scientific collaboration. The Olympiads, like the Olympics in sports, are a celebration of the best in high school science and mathematics.

INBO Eligibility Criteria

Indian Olympiad Qualifier in Biology(IOQB): 16 January 2022 (Sunday), 14:30–18:00 hrs

The national Olympiad programme in science subjects will now be split into two stages, with the international Olympiads taking place in 2021, rather than three.

• The Indian Olympiad Qualifier (IOQ) will be the first stage in 2020-2021.

• The next phase will be the Orientation and Selection Camp (OCSC).

Selections for Orientation/Selection Camps (OCSCs)

Unless otherwise mentioned before the IOQ tests, a total of 35 students will be chosen for OCSC in Biology, Chemistry, and Physics, and 50 students will be chosen for OCSC in Astronomy.

If all students with the same grades at the last position in the respective IOQ Part II merit list are qualified for the OCSC, the final position is tied.

INBO Exam Pattern

The question paper will be available in both English and Hindi (option during enrolment)

A) There are 24 multiple-choice questions with only one correct answer. You will receive a three-point bonus for choosing the correct decision. A -1 point is deducted for each incorrect answer.

B) 8 multiple-choice questions with one or more correct answers. You must mark all of the correct alternatives and none of the incorrect ones to gain credit.

Syllabus Of IOQB

In addition to following, general understanding of science topics studied till Class 10 and Mathematics topics studied till Class 12 is expected.

_Diversity Of Living Organisms

The Living World: What is living? Biodiversity; Need for classification; three domains of life; taxonomy and systematics; concept of species and taxonomic hierarchy; binomial nomenclature and tools for study of taxonomy.

Biological Classification: Five kingdom classification; Salient features and classification of Monera, Protista and Fungi into major groups: Lichens, Viruses and Viroids.

Plant Kingdom: Salient features and classification of plants into major groups – Algae, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms.

Animal Kingdom: Salient features and classification of animals, non-chordates up to phyla level and chordates up to class level.

_Structural Organization In Animals And Plants

Morphology and anatomy of Flowering Plants: Morphology and modifications: Morphology of different parts of flowering plants: root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit and seed. Anatomy and functions of different tissues and tissue systems.

Structural Organisation in Animals: Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of animals.

_Cell: Structure And Function

Cell-The Unit of Life: Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life: Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; Plant cell and animal cell; cell envelope; cell membrane, cell wall; structure and function of all cell organelles. Cellular respiration – glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); energy relations – number of ATP molecules generated; amphibolic pathways; respiratory quotient.

Biomolecules: Chemical constituents of living cells: biomolecules, structure and function of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; Enzymes- types, properties, enzyme action.

Cell Cycle and Cell Division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.

_Plant Physiology

Transport in Plants: Movement of water, gases and nutrients; cell to cell transport, diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; plant-water relations, imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; long distance transport of water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; 2 transpirations, opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients – Transport of food, phloem transport, mass flow hypothesis.

Mineral Nutrition: Essential minerals, macro- and micronutrients and their role; deficiency symptoms; mineral toxicity; elementary idea of hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; nitrogen metabolism, nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.

Photosynthesis and Respiration in Higher Plants: Photosynthesis as a means of autotrophic nutrition; site of photosynthesis, pigments involved in photosynthesis (elementary idea); photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation; chemiosmotic hypothesis; photorespiration; C3 and C4 pathways; factors affecting photosynthesis; exchange of gases.

Plant – Growth and Development: Seed germination; phases of plant growth and plant growth rate; conditions of growth; differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; sequence of developmental processes in a plant cell; growth regulators; seed dormancy; vernalisation; photoperiodism.

_Human Physiology

Digestion and Absorption: Alimentary canal and digestive glands, role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; calorific values of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; egestion; nutritional and digestive disorders.

Breathing and Exchange of Gases: Respiratory system in humans; mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans – exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration, respiratory volume; disorders related to respiration.

Body Fluids and Circulation: Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; composition of lymph and its function; human circulatory system – Structure of human heart and blood vessels; cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG; double circulation; regulation of cardiac activity; disorders of circulatory system.

Excretory Products and Their Elimination: Modes of excretion – ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; human excretory system – structure and function; urine formation, osmoregulation; regulation of kidney function – renin – angiotensin, atrial natriuretic factor, ADH and diabetes insipidus; role of other organs in excretion; disorders of excretory system; dialysis and artificial kidney, kidney transplant.

Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement – ciliary, flagellar, muscular; skeletal muscle- contractile proteins and muscle contraction; skeletal system and its functions; joints; disorders of muscular and skeletal system.

Neural Control and Coordination: Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans – central nervous system; peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; generation and conduction of nerve impulse; reflex action; sensory perception; structure and functions of sense organs.

Chemical Coordination and Integration: Endocrine glands and hormones; human endocrine system; mechanism of hormone action; role of hormones as messengers and regulators, hypo – and hyperactivity and related disorders.


Reproduction in Organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; modes of reproduction – asexual and sexual reproduction; asexual reproduction – binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule formation, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.

Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants: Flower structure; development of male and female gametophytes; pollination – types, agencies and examples; outbreeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization; post fertilization events – development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit; special modes- apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation.

Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis – spermatogenesis and oogenesis; menstrual cycle; fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; pregnancy and placenta formation; parturition; lactation.

Reproductive Health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs); birth control – need and methods, contraception and medical termination of pregnancy (MTP); amniocentesis; infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT.

_Genetics And Evolution

Heredity and variation: Mendelian inheritance; deviations from Mendelism – incomplete dominance, co- dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy; elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosome theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; Sex determination – in humans, birds and honey bee; linkage and crossing over; sex linked inheritances; Mendelian disorders in humans.

Molecular Basis of Inheritance: DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; transcription, genetic code, translation; gene expression and regulation – lac operon; Genome; DNA fingerprinting.

Evolution: Origin of life; biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidences); Darwin’s contribution, modern synthetic theory of evolution; mechanism of evolution – variation (mutation and recombination) and natural selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy – Weinberg’s principle; adaptive radiation; human evolution.

_Biology And Human Welfare

Human Health and Diseases: Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ringworm) and their control; Basic concepts of immunology – vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence – drug and alcohol abuse.

Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production: Improvement in food production: Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification, Apiculture and Animal husbandry.

Microbes in Human Welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and microbes as bio-control agents and bio-fertilizers. Antibiotics; production and judicious use.

Biotechnology – Principles, processes and applications: Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology); Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, stem cell technology, gene therapy; genetically modified organisms – Bt crops; transgenic animals; biosafety issues, bio piracy and patents.

_Ecology And Environment

Organisms and Populations: Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche, population and ecological adaptations; population interactions – mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population attributes – growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.

Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy; nutrient cycles; ecological succession; carbon fixation, pollination, seed dispersal.

Biodiversity and its Conservation: Biodiversity-Concept, patterns, importance; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms and extinction.

Environmental Issues: Air pollution and its control; water pollution and its control; agrochemicals and their effects; solid waste management; radioactive waste management; greenhouse effect and climate change impact and mitigation; ozone layer depletion; deforestation.

INBO Previous Year Papers

INBO Previous Year Question Papers are an important part in getting good grades. Candidates will have a better knowledge of the INBO Exam Pattern by practising these papers on a regular basis. Because a big number of students apply for IBO each year, competition is fierce. As a result, the students will gain from these question papers in terms of enhancing their speed and accuracy. Solving INBO past papers also helps students understand the marking methodology.

INBO Preparation Tips

Candidates are recommended to read the following INBO Preparation Tips before beginning their preparation:

Have a good understanding of the INBO Syllabus

Before beginning the preparation, it is critical to thoroughly review the complete syllabus. As a result, the share can be divided as needed.

Examination Pattern Analysis

It allows you to plan your study around the main themes and ensures that you cover the areas that are most important to you.

Consult the Study Materials

On the internet, you can find a variety of study materials for the INBO exam. Candidates must, however, be aware of how to use the proper study resources and sample papers.

INBO Sample Papers and Previous Year Papers can be used to prepare for the exam.

Every student preparing for INBO 2021 should solve sample papers and past year papers on a regular basis. It will help to increase their self-esteem.

Organizing your time

It's critical to stick to a daily schedule. It is critical to give each topic equal significance and time in order to achieve good grades. It is only achievable if good time management is used.

To all of the candidates, wish you the best of luck. Above all, enjoy the Olympiad since the trip can sometimes be more important than the destination. Check out our website for more information.